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Nunavut is the newest, largest, and northernmost territory of Canada. It was separated officially from the Northwest Territories on April 1, 1999, via the Nunavut Act[9] and the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement Act,[10] which provided this territory to the Inuit for independent government. The boundaries had been drawn in 1993. The creation of Nunavut resulted in the first major change to Canada’s political map since the province of Newfoundland was incorporated in 1949.

Nunavut comprises a major portion of Northern Canada and most of the Arctic Archipelago. Its vast territory makes it the fifth-largest country subdivision in the world, as well as North America’s second-largest (after Greenland). The capital Iqaluit (formerly Frobisher Bay), on Baffin Island in the east, was chosen by a capital plebiscite in 1995. Other major communities include the regional centres of Rankin Inlet and Cambridge Bay.

Nunavut also includes Ellesmere Island to the far north, as well as the eastern and southern portions of Victoria Island in the west, and all islands in Hudson, James and Ungava bays, including Akimiski Island far to the southeast of the rest of the territory. It is Canada’s only geo-political region that is not connected to the rest of North America by highway.[11]

Nunavut is the least populous of Canada’s provinces and territories.[12] One of the world’s most remote, sparsely settled regions, Nunavut has a population of 39,536 (mid-2021 figure, up from 35,944 in 2016),[1][12] consisting mostly of Inuit people. These people occupy a land area of just over 1,877,787 km2 (725,018 sq mi), or slightly smaller than Mexico (excluding water surface area). Nunavut is also home to the world’s northernmost permanently inhabited place, Alert.[13] Eureka, a weather station on Ellesmere Island, has the lowest average annual temperature of any Canadian weather station

Source: Nunavut – Wikipedia

The region, which is now mainland Nunavut, was first populated approximately 4500 years ago by the Pre-Dorset, a diverse Paleo-Eskimo culture that migrated eastward from the Bering Strait region.[16]

The Pre-Dorset culture was succeeded by the Dorset culture about 2800 years ago.[17] Anthropologists and historians believe that the Dorset culture developed from the Pre-Dorset; however, the relationship between the two remains unclear.[17]

Helluland, which Norse explorers described visiting in their Sagas of Icelanders, has been associated to Nunavut’s Baffin Island. Claims of contact between the Dorset and Norse, however, remain controversial.[18][19]

The Thule people, ancestors of the modern Inuit, began migrating from Alaska in the 11th century into the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. By 1300, the geographic extent of Thule settlement included most of modern Nunavut.

The migration of the Thule people coincides with the decline of the Dorset, who died out between 800 and 1500

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